Can an email be a binding contract?

02 Feb Can an email be a binding contract?

QUESTION: To what extent does an email or online message count as a binding contract? For the sake of example, let’s take a simple negotiation. If a fee is agreed upon for a particular range of services in an email conversation, can said email be printed out and used as evidence in case of a dispute?



For a contract to be binding there needs to be the following elements present (generally):

  • An offer
  • An acceptance
  • An intention of both parties to create legal relations i.e. both parties knew they were creating an agreement
  • Consideration – this could be monetary, or the exchange of promises e.g. A agrees to sell his car to B, and B agrees to pay N10. The consideration from A is the promise to sell, and the consideration from B is the promise to pay N10.
  • Both parties must have capacity to create a contract i.e. neither should be under 18 years of age, or in the case of a company, the officer of the company purporting to bind the company must have obtained prior approval to enter such contract.

Not all contracts have to be in writing or on a signed piece of paper. Verbal contracts are also valid. All that is required is the above elements to be present. So, to answer your question, a contract entered into via email which has all the terms stated and all the above elements present will be binding.

The value of the terms being agreed via email comes in later, if there is a dispute as to its existence or the terms therein. Under Nigerian law (Evidence Act 2011), documentary evidence obtained via computer systems are admissible, and so the email print outs can be used to clarify the terms of the agreement if there is indeed a dispute.

Thank you for reading this post, if you have found it useful please share with your network using one of the share buttons below. Also, PLEASE SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTER HERE TO BE UPDATED IN CASE THERE ARE ANY CHANGES IN THE ARTICLE YOU HAVE JUST READ DUE TO A CHANGE IN LAW.


If you have any suggestions or feedback from this article or ideas on future articles you think we should research and write, please send us an email at [email protected]


We hope you have found this information helpfulPlease note that this information is provided for general informational purposes only and is not intended to be legal advice. No lawyer-client relationship is formed nor should any such relationship be implied. It is not intended to substitute for the advice of a qualified lawyer. If you require legal advice, please consult with a qualified lawyer. If you need assistance in contacting a lawyer, you may complete the form below and we would be glad to match you with a lawyer who meets your requirements.


Choose Legal service required

How would you prefer to be contacted?

Where are you contacting us from?

No Comments

Sorry, the comment form is closed at this time.