5 Ways the VAPP has changed the offence of Rape in Nigeria

The VAPP and Rape in Nigeria

In 2015, the Nigerian National Assembly passed the Violence Against Person (Prohibition) Act also known as the VAPP.

This law is a very important piece of legislation for a number of reasons, and we will discuss a few of them below. However, before we go into the discussion there is one very important piece of information you need to know. The VAPP is only applicable in the FCT, Abuja. This is because even though it was made by the National Assembly, it was only made applicable in the FCT, and only the High Courts of the FCT had the jurisdiction over crimes created in the VAPP. However, a number of States around the country have now passed their own versions of the Law applicable in the respective States. These States are Anambra, Bauchi, Ekiti, Enugu, Kaduna, and Oyo. You can track the number of States in Nigeria who have passed their own versions of the Law here – VAPP Tracker

Now, how exactly has this law revolutionised the office of Rape in Nigeria?


1. Women and Men can be raped

Prior to this law, only women could be ‘raped’ in the legal definition of the word. However, this Law now provides that men CAN be raped – The Violence Against Persons Prohibition Act is the first piece of legislation in Nigeria which recognises that men are capable of being raped. All previous laws only define the offence in relation to women. In the definition of rape in other criminal statutes, reference is made to penetration of the vagina. Since only women have vaginas, only women can be raped. The VAPP acknowledging that men can be raped is therefore very revolutionary. In other rape laws, only vaginal penetration could be classified as ‘rape’. This law states that unlawful anal or oral sex can be rape. This is the first piece of legislation to classify both acts as rape and not sexual assault.


2. ‘Instrument’ of Rape

The Law states that the instrument of rape does not have to be a penis, it can be another part of the body e.g. hand, or an object e.g. dildo or even objects like pens, pencils etc. The other laws that deal with rape specify that a penis must have vaginal penetration for it to be the offence of rape. Therefore, we can see that the Violence Against Person (Prohibition) Act is focusing on the violation of the person’s body when viewing the act of rape, and not a strict view of the fact that for it to be rape there must be penetration by a male genital.


3. Minimum Penalty for Rape

In other legislations like the Criminal Code, the law provides for a maximum penalty, which means that the judge had the discretion to sentence an offender to less than the maximum penalty. The VAPP takes away this discretion to some extent, it states that once the crime of rape is proven, the offender must be sentenced to a minimum penalty of 12 years for rape. However, the judge still has the discretion to sentence the offender to more than 12 years.


4. Financial Compensation for Victims

The Law also recognises the rights of the victim to financial compensation. Financial compensation for victims is a welcome trend. It helps the victim in rebuilding their life after an act of rape. For example, the victim might need to go for therapy etc after being raped. This would normally have been paid by the victim, but now the offender can be made to pay for this.


5. Sex Offenders Register

The Law also provides that rapists when convicted will have their details entered into a sex offenders register. A sex offender register is a system designed to allow government authorities to keep track of the residence and activities of sex offenders, including those who have completed their criminal sentences. The National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) has created an offender register and it can be accessed here – Nigeria Sexual Offenders Database

As can be seen from the above points, the VAPP Act is indeed revolutionary as regards the law of rape, and we at LawPàdí hope the agencies of government charged with the responsibility of implementing the Law will do so properly.



If you’ve been raped or sexually assaulted, then you should not suffer in silence. Rape is a crime in Nigeria, and if you are a victim you should report the matter.

Reporting rape can be a very emotional and difficult thing to do, so you should consider getting support from organisations like Mirabel Centre – http://mirabelcentre.org/ , where rape and sexual assault victims can get access to forensic medical assistance, and more importantly professional counselling services. They are located at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) Ikeja, Lagos, and are open from 9am – 5pm – Monday – Friday, and 10am – 4pm on weekends & Public Holidays. You can reach them on these numbers: 07013491769, 01-2957816, 08176275732, 08176275695; and on Twitter: @MirabelCentreNG and Facebook: www.facebook.com/MirabelNigeria


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We hope you have found this information helpfulWe have provided this article for general informational purposes only and is not legal advice. No lawyer-client relationship is formed nor should any such relationship be implied. If you require legal advice, please consult with a qualified lawyer.


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